To acquaint the students with the basics of plant protection. 


Introduction, importance and scope. The concepts of pest, predator, parasites, parasitoids and pathogens. Introduction to plant pests: insects, vertebrates, pathogens, weeds, parasitic plants, nematodes and mites. Losses and damages caused by pests. Methods of pest control (Cultural, mechanical, physical, biological, legislative, genetical, bio-pesticides, and chemical). Plant protection equipments. Introduction to Integrated Crop Management and Integrated Pest Management (ICM and IPM). Bio-technology in plant protection.


Collection, preservation and identification of pests of field crops, fruits, vegetables and their natural enemies. Field/labs demonstration of damages and losses caused by major pests .Use of plant protection equipments.


Recommended Books:

1.        Bhutta,A.R. 2010.Text book of introductory seed pathology.HEC., Islamabad.

2.        Atwal, A. S and G. S, Dhaliwal.2005. Agricultural Pests of South Asia and their Management, 5th              ed. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana

3.        Agrios, G. N. 2005. Plant Pathology, 5th ed. Elsevier Academic Press Inc., New York.

4.        Shah, H. A. and Saleem, M. A. 2005. Applied Entomology. 3rd ed. B. Z. University Press, Multan.

5.        Ahmad, I. and Bhutta, A. R. 2004. Text book of Introductory Plant Pathology. Pub. National                     Book  Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan.

6.        Oudejans,J.H.1991.Agro-Pesticides: Properties and functions in integrated crop                         protection.  United Nation Pub. Bankok.Thiland